Lyme Disease and Co-Infections

 

 Lyme Disease

Vector(s): Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes pacificus  

Causative Agent: Borrelia burgdorferi 

Incubation Period: 3-30 days

Signs and Symptoms:

Early Symptoms

  • Fever, chills, headache, fatigue, muscle and joint aches, and swollen lymph nodes
  • Erythema migrans (EM) rash

Late Symptoms :   

  • Problems with short-term memory
  • Shooting pains, numbness, or tingling in the hands or feet
  • Episodes of dizziness or shortness of breath, inflammation of the brain and spinal cord, nerve pain
  • Heart palpitations or an irregular heart beat 
  • Facial palsy (loss of muscle tone or droop on one or both sides of the face)
  • Arthritis with severe joint pain and swelling
  • EM rashes on other areas of the body
  • Severe headaches, neck stiffness

 

Content source: Centers for Disease Control 

 

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Vector: Dog Tick

Causative Agent: Rickettsia rickettsii 

Incubation Period: 2-14 days

Signs and Symptoms

  • fever
  • chills
  • severe headache
  • malaise, myalgia
  • gastrointestinal symptoms ( nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, abdominal tenderness),
  • neurological deficits
  • sudden deafness 
  •    Can be fatal if not treated within the first 5 days from the start of symptoms
  • Content source: Centers for Disease Control 

 

Ehrlichiosis

Vector: Lone Star Tick, Brown Dog Tick

Causative AgentEhrlichia chaffeensisE. ewingii 

Incubation Period: 7-14 days

Signs and Symptoms:

  • fever
  • headache
  • chills, cough
  • malaise, myalgia
  • gastrointestinal symptoms
  • confusion
  • rash ( more common in children)

Late Stage (if not treated) 

  • Damage to the brain or nervous system (e.g. inflammation of the brain and surrounding tissue (called meningoencephalitis))
  • Respiratory failure
  • Uncontrolled bleeding
  • Organ failure
  • Death
Content source: Centers for Disease Control 
Anaplasmosis

VectorIxodes scapularis Ixodes pacificus

Causative AgentAnaplasma phagocytophilum 

Incubation Period: 7-14 days

Signs and Symptoms:

  • fever
  • chills
  • malaise
  • myalgia
  • gastrointestinal symptoms
  • cough 

Content source: Centers for Disease Control 

 

Babesiosis

Vector: Ixodes scapularis

Causative AgentBabesia microti

Incubation Period: 1-9 weeks

Signs and Symptoms:

    • Fever, chills, sweats, headache
    • Malaise, fatigue
    • Myalgia, arthralgia, 
    • Gastrointestinal symptoms 
    • Dark urine
    • Less common: cough, sore throat, emotional lability, depression
    • Mild splenomegaly, mild hepatomegaly, or jaundice may occur 

Content source: Centers for Disease Control 

 

 Borrelia miyamotoi

Vector: Ixodes scapularis

Causative AgentBorrelia miyamotoi

Incubation Period: Days to weeks ( specific incubation period is unknown)

Signs and Symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Fatigue
  •  headache
  • Arthralgia, myalgia

Less common symptoms

  • Dizziness, confusion, vertigo 
  • Rash 
  • Dyspnea 
  • Nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and anorexia 

Content source: Centers for Disease Control 

 

Tularemia 

Vector: Dermacentor variabilis ( Dog Tick), D. andersoni (Wood Tick), Amblyomma americanum ( Lone Star Tick)

Causative Agent: Francisella tularensis

Incubation Period: 3-5 days, but the range can be 1-21 days

Signs and Symptoms:

    • Fever, chills
    • Headache
    • Malaise, fatigue
    • Anorexia
    • Myalgia
    • Chest discomfort, cough
    • Sore throat
    • Vomiting, diarrhea
    • Abdominal pain

Content source: Centers for Disease Control